While nursing, pets receive antibodies (colostrum) and nutrients from their mother’s milk. When nursing stops, pets become more susceptible to illnesses because their immune systems do not have the same support they once did. As part of a preventative care routine, pet vaccinations can help protect your pet from life-threatening diseases.
For most pets, routine vaccinations start around the age of 7 to 8 weeks old and continue regularly throughout adulthood. Some vaccinations are even combined into a single syringe so a pet experiences fewer injections. After being vaccinated, most young pets take about 5 days to build protective antibodies with complete protection taking place after 14 days. Some vaccines require multiple dosages given over a short period of time, and most require booster shots every 6 months to 3 years. Pets who have been vaccinated have an advantage over those who have not. When a disease is detected, your vaccinated pet’s immune system quickly responds, decreasing severity of the illness or preventing it altogether. While it is rare, some pets do not develop immunity from their vaccinations and still become ill. If your pet has been vaccinated, is current on all of their booster shots, and has never shown signs of illness or disease, it has likely been successfully vaccinated.
Pet owners should note that vaccinations are preventative, not curative. A vaccination will prevent an illness, but if your pet is already suffering from a disease, a vaccine will not cure them.
Core and non-core pet vaccinations:
There are several pet vaccinations that are necessary for all pets and others that are recommended only under special circumstances. Core vaccinations are those that are commonly recommended for all pets, and non-core vaccinations include those that are only administered to pets considered to be “at-risk.” Necessary vaccines depend on local regulations, geographic location, and your pet’s lifestyle. Your pet will be vaccinated according to their risk of exposure and our veterinarians will discuss the best options for your pet specifically.
Bordetella (kennel cough) – This is a non-core vaccine, and our veterinarians might not consider your pet to be at risk. The vaccination is first given to puppies when they are 7-8 weeks old, and it is repeated a full 3 weeks later. Booster shots are then given every 6 to 12 months, depending on the dog’s exposure. Country Creek Animal Hospital requires timely Bordetella vaccinations (within 6 months) for elective procedures (dental cleanings, spay/neuters) as well as for pet lodging and grooming services.
Distemper, Adenovirus, Parainfluenza, Parvovirus (DA2PP) – These vaccines are considered core vaccines. Your puppy will receive their first vaccination between 7 and 8 weeks old, and booster shots will be given once every 3-4 weeks until your puppy is at least 16 weeks old (depending on when vaccinations were started). A booster vaccination is administered after the first year and then every third year following that.
Leptospirosis – This non-core vaccine can be given to a puppy aged 12 weeks or older (with a booster 3-4 weeks thereafter) and is an annual vaccination that is intended to prevent bacterial infections in the kidneys, liver, and other major organs. Depending on your dog’s risk of exposure, this vaccination could be unnecessary. The veterinarians at Country Creek Animal Hospital recommend routine vaccination in all otherwise healthy dogs due to the increased exposure to this disease in our area (spread through urine of wildlife like rabbits, mice, rats, squirrels, etc)
Lyme – The Lyme vaccination is a non-core vaccine that is first administered when the puppy reaches 12 weeks old. The first booster is given to the puppy at 15 weeks old and annual boosters are recommended for dogs that reside in areas with increased exposure to ticks carrying Lyme disease. Country Creek Animal Hospital currently does not recommend the Lyme vaccination in dogs in the North Texas area. If your pet is to ever travel to a Lyme endemic area (New England, Atlantic Coast, Upper Midwest), then we can customize a vaccination plan for your pet inclusive of Lyme's disease.
Rabies – The rabies vaccine is considered a core vaccine, and many states require pets to have it by law, but there are a few exceptions. The initial vaccine is first given when the puppy reaches 16 weeks old. A booster shot is necessary after 1 year, then typically every 3rd year following that. Current Texas law requires that all dogs and cats be vaccinated and boostered for Rabies, with rare exceptions.
Canine Influenza (H3N2 and H3N8) - The Canine Influenza viruses are new to the recommended non-core vaccinations available at Country Creek Animal Hospital. To date, there has only been isolated confirmed cases of Canine Influenza in the North Texas area but outbreaks have occurred as close as Central Texas/Greater Austin area. That being said, the veterinarians at Country Creek Animal Hospital currently recommend strong consideration for pet owners to include Canine Influenza vaccinations in their pet's vaccination plan.
Feline Herpesvirus, Calicivirus, Feline Distemper - These vaccines are considered core vaccines. Your kitten will receive their first vaccinations between the ages of 6 and 8 weeks, and they will need to be repeated once every 3 -4 weeks until your kitten reaches 15 to 17 weeks old (depending on when vaccinations were started). A booster vaccination is administered at your pet's first annual adult visit. Feline Distemper boosters are then given every 3 years.
Feline Leukemia (FeLv) – Feline Leukemia is a core vaccine for kittens and young adults. The first vaccine is given when a kitten is 12 weeks old and the first booster is administered when the cat reaches 15 to 16 weeks old. Booster vaccines are recommended to be updated at a pet's first adult annual visit. Thereafter, if the feline is exposed to other cats on a routine basis or is allowed to go outside, then we recommend boostering every 3 years.
Rabies – This vaccine is also a core vaccination for cats and kittens. The initial vaccine is first administered between 12 and 16 weeks of age. A booster vaccine is necessary annually thereafter.
Non-core vaccines for felines include Chlamydia, Feline Infectious Peritonitis, and Ringworm vaccines, but their use is only considered for pets with a high risk of exposure.
Preventable canine diseases and symptoms:
Preventable feline diseases and symptoms:
Pet Vaccination Concerns:
Similar to human vaccinations, pet vaccinations do carry a risk of side-effects. While negative side-effects do exist, it is important to note that your pet is statistically more likely to develop a life-threatening illness when not vaccinated, than to suffer adverse results from a vaccination. None-the-less, it is important to remain informed so you can ask appropriate questions at your pet’s appointment.
After being vaccinated, the injection site can be swollen or sore. Some pets also have a reduced appetite, fever, and may experience lethargy. These side-effects should diminish over the next 24 to 48 hours. If you notice your pet’s side-effects are not subsiding, please contact our office. Very rarely, pets develop an allergy to a vaccine. Allergies can be detected within minutes of receiving a vaccination and if left untreated, can result in death. If you witness any of the following, contact our office immediately: collapse, non-stop diarrhea, continual vomiting, difficulty breathing, itching, or swelling of the legs or face.
Regulations Regarding Rabies Vaccinations:
While the federal government does not mandate pet vaccinations for rabies, most states implement their own laws regarding pet vaccination. Vaccination laws also vary from country to country, so if you plan on moving, be sure to check necessary requirements to ensure a smooth transition for your family.
States in which your pet can receive exemption from being vaccinated include: Alabama, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Florida, Illinois, Maine, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey (dogs only), New York, Oregon (dogs only), Vermont, Virginia, and Wisconsin. All other states require rabies vaccinations by law, for all pets.
If you have any questions about vaccinations or scheduling new pet vaccinations, you may contact our office at your convenience.
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